First you'll need to get the source code. Once you have a working copy you need to enable debugging using the following configure option.
At execution time, you must enable the debug messages. To enable the debug messages, set the environment variable for the section you want to debug or set "EV_DEBUG" to enable debug messages for all sections.
The following sections are available:
EV_DEBUG_JOBS=1 evince document.pdf
Debug Poppler messages
Poppler is the library used by Evince to render PDF documents. When a document presents error, or there are issues in Poppler to handle it, the output can be seen by setting G_MESSAGES_DEBUG to enable debug messages for Poppler.
G_MESSAGES_DEBUG=Poppler evince document.pdf
G_MESSAGES_DEBUG=all evince document.pdf